Educational Psychology Notes

 

 

Educational Psychology is…

-          A scientific Method of Inquiry

-          A system of communication

-          A set of ethical standards

-          An organized body of problems and solutions about teaching, learning and development

 

IS IT COMMON SENSE?

-          It only seems like it is after the results are read

-          Wong did some research in which she put the wrong solution to a problem and it seemed like the correct response proving it is not common sense

-          EXAMPLES

-          It is best to work on forming relationships rather than jump right into the material

-          It is best not to keep “the first instinct choice” on a test

-          Bilingual children do not have a problem with confusing their languages

-          Children don’t necessarily understand when they say they do

-          Social children don’t necessarily have academic problems

-          Relaxation techniques don’t necessarily lead to better grades

-          A teacher should ignore children who continually get out of their seats

 

 

Teaching – Action taken with the intent to Learning

Learning – Change in though or behavior that modifies a person’s capabilities

 

Teaching and Learning are aspects of the same process

   

TYPICAL STRATEGIES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING

1.        Review the facts

2.        State assumptions

3.        Form questions

4.        Identify irrelevant information

5.        consider alternatives; predict

6.        assign priorities

7.        select criteria for judging effectiveness of solutions

8.        Decide on solution; Take action

 

 

Principles of development stage theories

1.        Orderly – they progress in a certain order

2.        Gradual – not obviously just realize it has happened after it has (buying clothes)

3.        People develop at different rates of speed

   

THREE INFLUENCES OF DEVELOPMENT

1.        Maturation

2.        Action with the environment

3.        Social/Cultural interactions

 

PIGET

-          From Switzerland, but spoke French

-          Published first scientific report at 11 about a unique albino sparrow; Got his Ph.D. at 22

-          Worked with Binet (the man known for the I.Q. test)

-          Developed the learning theory – grew out of watching his own three kids

 

TABULA RASA (BLANK SLATE) IDEA

-          When children are born their minds are blank slate  
Learning adds information to their slate

 

PIGET’S STAGES

SENSIMOTOR STAGE (0-2 YEARS)

1.        Object Permanence (out-of-sight / out-of-mind) – Realizing that things can exist without being seen

2.        Goal Directed Actions (trial and error) – Jack-in-the-box

3.        Reflexes

4.        Gestural Imitations

5.        Independent Movement (A-B Movement) – Realizing that objects can continue to move after they are out of sight

 

PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7 Years)

1.        Symbolic Thought (Semiotic Function) – Use of symbols including pictures, numbers, letters, pretend play

2.        Egocentric – Having only one perspective

-       comfort mom with doll because that is what comforts her / Piget’s three mountains)

3.        Collective Monologue

-          In a group, children will respond to another child with some totally non related subject.

 

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL

1.        Reversibility – Ability to think in reverse order

2.        Conservation – Amount stays the same even though they are in different shaped containers

-       ability to decentralize – focus on more than one object

3.        Classification – organizing things in categories and understanding inclusions (all father are men, but all men aren’t fathers)

4.        Seriation – Putting things in order

 

FORMAL OPERATIONS (11-adulthood)

1.        Abstract thought

2.        Hypothesize “what if”

3.        Concern for social issues (relationships, current events)

4.        Development of Self – Identity

 

PROOF OF PIGET’S THEORY

1.             Brain Mass, Skull Size and Electrical Activity all increase when transitions occur from stage to stage

2.        Monkey Brains

3.        Sioux children and Swiss children both learned how to do similar tasks at similar ages

 

CRITICISMS OF PIGET’S THEORY

1.        Underestimated young children’s thinking ability

  1. “expertise” e.g. chess, weaving, pottery
    Simple conservation tasks with 3-4 items

  2. Understand syllogisms

2.        Development is not consistent for all mental operations in a stage

-          understand conservation of numbers two years before conservation of mass

3.        Overestimated older children’s thinking.  Formal operations is not always used

-          Kamii – 20-25% of children use formal operations in math

-          Sprinthall – 33% of High school seniors are still in the concrete operational stage

4.        Cultural Differences accordin to Western perspective

-          Kpelle Tribe’s Classification System (they arranged the tool with the appropriate food, not tools with tools, foods with foods)

-          Brazillian Children – good in dealing with money

-          Mexican children – Pottery (conservation of mass)

-          Value of sharing and cooperation – some cultures empathize this much more

5.        Method of Research

-          used his own children

-          small sample

-          tasks were unrelated to real-life experience

 

VYGOTSKY’S SOCIO-CULTURAL COGNATIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY

 

A Child Learns By…

1.        Cultural agents – people the child is exposed to

2.        Cultural tools (language numbers, conventions of society) – this affects thinking

-          Eskimo’s have over 100 different words for snow

 

Piget – development leads to language

Vygotsky – language leads to development

 

PRIVATE SPEECH

-               Piget said it is egocentric speech – no purpose

-               Vgotsky said it is private speech

-          audibility peaks between 5 & 7


ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT

3.     Extremely difficult............................................... Can not do (even with help)

2.     Moderate/Challenging....................................... Can do (but with some assistance [scaffolding]) = ZPD

1.     Extremely Easy.................................................... Can do alone

 

 

PHONOLOGY

-               Pronunciation

-               Phonetics

 

First Sounds = b, p, m, n, w,

Later Sounds = r, v, th, zh

 

Syntax

-          Sentence Structure

-          18 months – says first sentence

-          Telegraphic speech – two words (ex. More milk!)

-          Holophrase – one word (ex. Milk!)

-               4 years – adult-like sentences

 

Semantics

-          meanings of words and sentences

-          interpretation (the man was a bear/boar/bore)

 

Pragmatics

-          Understanding the intentions of the speaker (sarcasm)

-          Context

-          Appropriations

-          intentions

 

 

Self Concept:  Ways of describing oneself

 

Self Esteem:  Self Judgement of Qualities

 

Youth – 8 years            =              Concrete; physical characteristics, Favorites, Abilities (I have blond hair)

                8 – 11 years                           =              Personality traits, dispositions, competency, comparison (I can play piano well)

                12 – Adult                             =              Experienced Based Descriptions, Social Virtues, Recognition of experience

(I’m easy to get along with except when I’m tired)        

 

ERICKSON

-          If the needs of each stage are met, it will result in the positive side, if not, it will result in the negative

 

 

STAGE                                                          AGE                                                CHARACTERISTIC

Trust vs. Mistrust                                        0-1 (Infancy)                                 Feeding

Autonomy vs. Shame & doubt                  1-2 (Toddler period)                     Toilet Training

Initiative vs. Guilt                                         2-6 (Early childhood)                   Independence

Industry vs. Inferiority                                6-12 (Elementary/Middle)           School

Identity vs. Role Confusion                       12-18 (Adolescence)                    Poor Relationships

Intimacy vs. Isolation                                  Young Adulthood                       Loving Relationships

Generatively vs. Stagnation                       Middle Adulthood                       Parenting

Integrity vs. Despair                                    Late Adulthood                            Reflection and Acceptance of one’s life

 

 

A Person is a lot less likely to cheat in a subject that he/she is knowledgeable in

 

MORAL DEVELOPMENT

-          deciding on what’s right and what’s wrong

 

 

PIAGET’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT

1.        Premoral Stage (0-2)

-          unawareness of right and wrong

2.        Morality of Constraint / Heteronymous Stage (2-10)

-          Absolute Obedience is expected

-          Rules are inviolable from unquestionable authority

-          Outcome (consequences) only is considered

-          kindergarten – first story “Stay in seats”

-          Tattling – “White Lies – Note Understanding

3.        Morality of Cooperation / Autonomous Stage (10 – Adulthood)

-          Rules or Intentions of a person are considered

 

KOLBERG’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT (Page 82)

-          used “Moral Dilemmas” – stories fro choosing right and wrong

-          according to responses, he classified

1.        Preconventional Level – self

a.        depends on weather action warrants punishment (“Stealing is wrong”)

b.       depends on exchange of favors, self-benefit (“If I steal the drug, my wife will be nice to me”)

2.        Conventional Level – Conformity

c.        Depends on reputation (“I wouldn’t steal it because my family would call me bad”)

d.       depends on what the law says  (“No, it’s against the law)

3.        Post Conventional Level – abstract

e.        Depends on Constitutional principles (“Saving Lives”)

f.         depends on universal ethical principles

 

-          Discuss different Levels, not stages

 

CRITICISM’S OF KOLBERG’S THEORY

1.        Based on males only

2.        Based on Western Cultures

3.        Dilemmas may not be meaningful (to complex) for children

4.        Children do sophisticated moral reasoning I simple dilemmas and daily activities

5.        Choices/Reasoning are not equal to behavior (Just because they know what to do, doesn’t mean that they’ll do it.

6.        Stages may be skipped, return to previous stages, too inconsistent

7.        Stage 6 was dropped by Kolberg because it was too ideal

8.        Depends on Cognitive Development

9.        Depends on the situation

 

GILLIGAN’S STAGES

1.        Individual Survival

a.        from selfishness to Responsibility

2.        Self-Sacrifice and Social Conformity

a.        From Goodness to Truth

3.        Morality of Non violence

 

IMPLICATIONS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

1.        Rationalization with students

-          awareness of different levels

-          preconventional:  use concrete situations

2.        Teaching Morality itself

 

 

APPLICATION OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

1.        Don’t avoid the unpleasantries / Do have open class discussions

2.        Role Playing

-          responsibility and care for others

-          considering roles, perspectives, plights of others

-          Opportunities to examine, compare, justify their own values

3.        Teach Alternatives in dealing with conflict resolution

4.        Exposure to Altruistic Models

-          Model ethical behavior

5.        Do not engage in “rule-quoting” as the only strategy, explain why the rules are there

6.        Children’s literature on Dilemmas (old yeller, grim’s fairy tales)

 

 

Ian Pavlov

-          a Biologist

-          studying how much the dogs were salivating, but found that they were salivating before the food was given to them

 

BRANCHES OF CONDITIONING

1.        Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)

2.        Operant Conditioning (Thorndike, Skinner)

3.        Vicarious Conditioning (Bandura)

4.        Contiguity Learning

 

Stimulus – Condition evoking a behavior

Response – the behavior as a result of a stimulus

 

Unconditioned – un learned and natural

                               

BEFORE                                                                                                                 AFTER

Unconditioned Stimulus     food                                        Conditioned Stimulus – sound of bell             

Unconditioned Response   salivate                                  Unconditioned Stimulus - salivation

Neutral Stimulus                                   bell                                                         

 

Process of Conditioning works through contiguity Learning (two paired events occurring together)

 

Behaviorism

-               aka:  Classical Conditioning, Pavlovian Conditioning, Respondent Conditioning

-               Observed changes in behavior

-               Goal – Predict and control Behaviors with accuracy and precision

 

Behaviorism – 4 Categories

1.        Classical Conditioning

-          involuntary responses

-          physiologically based

2.        Operant Conditioning

3.        Vicarious Conditioning

4.        Contiguity Learning – presenting two events at the same time

 

FOUR MAJOR TERMS

Spontaneous Recovery – unlearning a behavior and then suddenly having a relapse

Discrimination – discrimination a bell from a whistle

Generalization – associating a bell with a whistle

Extinction – ending a conditioning

 

 

THORNDIKE’S 3 LAWS (pg 209)

1.        Law of Learning:  Readiness is an important condition to learning because satisfaction or frustration depends on one’s state of readiness

2.        Law of Exercise:  Learning and making connections is increased in proportion to frequency and magnitude (Duration & vigor)

3.        Law of Effect:  Responses accompanied by satisfaction are more firmly connected to the situation “Any action producing a pleasing effect will be repeated”

 

CONSEQUENCES (pg 210)

-          Reinforcement – Strengthen Behavior

-       Positive Reinforcement – give something good (good grade for hard work)

-          Negative reinforcement – take away something bad (drop lowest grade for improvement)

-          Punishment – Weakens Behavior

-          Removal Punishment – take away something good  (no recess for misbehaving)

-          Presentation Punishment – give something bad (bad grade for poor work)

 

REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES (pg 212)

-          Continuous Schedule – Every time a behavior is performed, a consequence is given

-          Intermittent Schedule – Not every time

-          Ratio Schedule – something based on number of responses

-          Fixed Ratio – predictable (for every five book reports taken, extra credit)

-          Variable Ratio – not predictable (slot machines) 

-          Interval Schedule – something based on amount of time passes

-          Fixed Interval – predictable (quiz every Friday)

-          Ratio Interval – not predictable (pop quizzes)

 

 

Prompting – more direct indication, requesting a behavior (best to use from least to most obvious)

-          written prompt, verbal prompt, gestural prompt, physical prompt

-          best to use from least obvious to most obvious

Cueing – setting up the antecedent for behavior

 

EFFECTIVE PRAISE (pg 217)

-          Must be Contingent on good behavior to be reinforced

-          Must specify clearly the behavior being reinforced

-          Must be sincere and believable

-          Not based on comparisons

-          Focused on praise on effort

-          Not used to single out students

 

INCREASING BEHAVIORS (pg 218)

1.        Praise & Ignore – accentuating the good behaviors and ignoring the bad

2.        Premack Principle – “Grandma’s Law” – a more-preferred activity can serve as reinforcement for a less preferred activity

3.        Shaping – reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior (a.k.a. successive approximations)

4.        Task Analysis – breakdown of steps

5.        Positive Practice – practicing correct responses immediately after errors

 

REDUCING BEHAVIORS (pg 222)

1.        Satiation – Getting students to do something so many times that it is no longer fun

2.        Private Reprimands – Correction one-to-one

3.        Response Cost – punishment by loss of reinforcers

4.        Social Isolation (a.k.a. timeout) – removal of all reinforcement

 

Punishment Issues

-          Continuous is most effective

-          Intensity increases and effectiveness increases

-          Remove reinforcers of bad behavior

-          Most effective when delivered early during a series of actions

-          Longer Delay results in decrease of effectiveness

-          Sometimes variation is needed

-          Reinforce alternate positive behaviors

 

SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (pg 225)

-               emphasizes learning through the observation of others (Bandura)

 

Vicarious Learning – Learning from observation

-               Ripple Effect – contagious spread of behaviors through imitation (café food fight)

Enactive Learning – Being involved first hand

 

BOBO DOLL EXPERIMENT by Ross & Ross

-          an adult demonstrated hitting and sitting on it, the children repeated the actions

-          Shows aggression is learned

 

Self-efficiency – your belief of how you will do something (confidence)

Self-Management – Self Monitoring

Self-Reinforcement

 

Social Learning

-          Effective Models

-          Perceived Similarity – if the observer thinks model is similar (use a variety of models, peers work best)

-          Precieved Competance – Observer’s opinion about the models competance

-          Mastery Models – highly competant, not a lot of effort – shows results

-          Coping Models – open about the trouble they had – shows steps

 

 

Behaviorism

Cognative

learner is

passive, react to enviroment

active, master the environment

learning is from

associations (stimilus & response)

seek meaning in the world

learning is

permanent change in behaviors

acquirimg, remembering, using knowledge

 

FIVE STANDARDS OF AUTHENTIC LEARNING

1.        High order thinking (Low order Thinking vs. high-order thinking)

2.        Depth of knowledge (Knowledge is shallow vs. knowledge is deep)

3.        Connectedness to the world beyond the classroom (connection vs. no connection)

4.        Substantive conversation (no substance conversation vs. high-level substance  conversation

5.        Social support for student achievement (negative social support vs. positive social support

 

SENSORY REGISTER

Capacity:  unlimited (ex. hearing your name in a nearby conversation)

                Visual Duration:  ½ Second

                Auditory Duration:  1-3 seconds

SHORT TERM MEMORY – Working Memory

                Capacity:  7 bits ± 2

                Duration:  20-30 seconds

LONG TERM MEMORY

                Capacity:  unlimited

                Duration:  unlimited

 

MEMORIZING (pg 255)

Maintenance – repeating the information over and over

Elaborative rehearsal – Giving something meaning by associating it with what you already know

Chunking – Grouping information together into meaningful units to reduce the amount

 

TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE (pg 248)

1.        Declarative – facts, context, things – can be verbally stated

-          Semantic LTM – factual information

-          Episodic LTM – memory tied to a particular time, place and experience

2.        Procedural – how to do something – can be demonstrated

3.        Conditional – know when and why to use declarative or procedural knowledge

 

PERCEPTION (pg 251)

-          Our interpretation of sensory information (studied by the Gestalts)

-          TYPES

-          Bottom-Up Processing – details are noted to make sense of something

-          Top-Down Processing – context is noted to make sense of something [13 = (12, __, 14) or (A, __, C)]

 

Interference

-          Proactive – New memories obscure old memories

-          Retroactive – Old memories obscure new memories

 

 PAVIO’S DUAL CODE HYPOTHESIS

                TDCFBK                Actual

                TDOFBK               Visual Erroe

                TDVFBK                Auditory Error

1.        Verbal Units

2.        Visual Units

 

If both are encoded in LTM, them Memory is better

 

ORGANIZATION OF LTM

1.        Propositional Network – set of interconnected concepts and relationships in

2.        Images – representations based on the physical attributes – the appearance – of information

3.        schema – basic structure for organizing information

script – sequence of events

 

Levels of Processing Theory – Theory that recall of information is based on how deeply it is processed

 

Articulation Loop – a way of temporarily storing information that can hold as much information as repeated in 1.5 seconds

                Children have shorter capacity of STM

 

MNEMONICS – The Art of Memory

-          Acronyms – pronounceable words (NASCAR, NASA, FACE)

-          Acrostics – Sentences (Every Good Boy Does Fine)

-          Keywords – making and connecting associations (escrime – fencing)

-          Pegwords – applying a series of words to a logical sentence (Father Can Go Down And Eat Breakfast)

-          Chaning & Rhyming – I before E except after C

-          LociMethod – taking an imaginary walk through your house

-          Rote Memorization – learning by repetition without necessarily understanding the information

 

 

CONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE – we actively construct our knowledge based on what we already know and information we encounter

 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTIVISM 

Focus on building meaning with interaction with surrounding

-          Exogenus – knowledge grows from external factors

-          Endogenus – knowledge grows from internal factors

-               Dialectual Constructivism – knowledge grows through the interacting of internal and external factors

 

CONCEPT LEARNING

Concepts – a general category of ideas, objects, people, or experiences whose members share certain properties

Prototype – Best representative of a category – can, but doesn’t have to exist (bird = Robin)

Exemplar – a specific example of a given category is used to classify an item

 

TEACHING CONCEPTS

Definition, Examples, Nonexamples

                Attributes (revelent) Attribute (irrelevant)

 

Problem – any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find a means to do so

 

SOLUTION STRATEGIES

Algorithm – step-by-step procedure for solving a problem

Heuristic – general strategy in attempting to solve problems

1.        Means-end analysis – goal is divided into subgoals

2.        Working-backwards Strategy – start with the goal and move backwards to solve the problem

3.        Analogical Thinking – limiting the search for solutions to situations that are similar

4.        Verbalization – putting you problem-solving and its logic into words

5.        Diagrams – Patterns, Flowcharts, maps

 

FACTORS THAT HINDER PROBLEM SOLVING

Functional Fixedness – inability to use objects or tools in a new way

Response set – tendency to respond in the most familiar way

 

TRANSFER

1.             Specific – apply learning or knowledge to similar situations (use English Grammar in a History Paper)

General – apply learning or knowledge to (dissimilar Situations (bandage a dog’s leg)

 

2.             Positive – if applying knowledge/learning is appropriate (when French words are similar and have same meanings)

Negative – if applying knowledge is inappropriate (when French words are similar but have different meanings)

 

1.        High-Road – really have to concentrate on what you’re doing

Low-Road – automatic thought

 

OBJECTIVES (pg 331)

Behavioral – (observable behaviors) list, recite, write, describe, calculate

Cognitive – (thinking operations) understand, know, recognize, apply

 

MAGER’S BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES (pg 331)

1.        Contain an observable Behavior (Do what?)

2.        Context/Setting/Condition (Under what conditions?)

3.        Criteria (How well?)

 

GRONLUND’S COGNATIVE OBJECTIVES (pg 332)

1.        List General Statements/Goals (understand, solve, appreciate)

2.        Specific examples and possibilities

 

DIFFEREND KINDS OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (pg 332)

1.        Cognitive Domain – Mind (Instructional, Educational, Learning)

2.        Affective Domain – Heart

3.        Psychomotor Domain – Body

 

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES (pg 332)

1         K     Knowledge Level – recalling information and facts

4.        C     Comprehension – Understanding, translating the information in your own words

5.        A     Application – using information to solve problems

6.        A     Analysis – breaking down information into parts

7.        S      Synthesis – creating a new idea, product or solution

8.        E      Evaluation – judging something against a standard

 

Cognitive Domain (thinking Skills)

Cognative Taxonomies (Various Levels)

 

BRUNER’S DISCOVERY LEARNING (pg 338)

Discovery Learning – Students work on their own to discover basic principles

Inductive Reasoning – Formulating general principles based on knowledge of examples and details

Eg-Rule Method – teaching or learning by moving from specific examples to general rules

 

AUSUBEL’S EXPOSITORY TEACHING (pg 341)

                Teacher presents material in complete, organized form, moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution

Rule-Eg Method – teaching or learning by moving from general principles to specific examples

Deductive Reasoning – Drawing conclusions by applying rules or principles; logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution

 

ECOLOGY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

1.        Multidimensional – everything going on around you

2.        Simultaneity – everything is going on at the same time

3.        Immediacy

4.        Unpredictable – always surprises

5.        Public – you’re accountable all of the time

6.        Precedent-Dependent – Students have a history, you cant start fresh

 

GOALS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

1.        Maximize Academic Learning Time – time engaged in learning

2.        Establish Clear Participation Structures – learn how to “be a student in class”

3.        Gain Self Management – wants students to manage themselves

 

 

SIX ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 

1.        Show your student you are “with it

-       knowing what’s going on (eyes in the back of your head)

2.        Learn to cope with overlapping situations

-       Doing two things at a time (have students get out books while calling roll)

3.        Strive to maintain smoothness and classroom momentum

-       don’t go too fast or too slow (frustrated/bored)

4.        Keep the whole class involved even when working with individuals

5.        Introduce variety, be enthusiastic (resist the usual)

6.        Be aware of ripple effect, be clear and firm when disciplining, avoid anger outbursts

 

 

Two Examples of When You’re Not “With-it”

-          Timing Error – when teacher doesn’t act on something immediately

-          Target Error – Placing the blame on the wrong student

 

Effective Classroom Rules

1.        Short

2.        Displayed in the classroom (to avoid arguments)

3.        Be positive (list do’s instead of don’ts)

4.        Actively Review

5.        Make the Justified (Discuss why they are in effect)

 

 

Group Consequences

Token Reinforcement

Contingency Contract

Messages Sent/Received – Interaction between teachers and student

Problem Diagnostic

Empathetic Listening

“I” Messages

Assertive Discipline

Non Verbal Communication

 

#1 goal of education is preventing misbehavior from ever occurring

 

Movement Management Problems

-          Teaching at slow pace

-          Working with one student while others wait

-          Starting a new activity and shifting to finish the old

 

 

External Sources of Motivation (Grade, Money, Etc.)

Internal Sources of Motivation (mood, Personal Drive, Will Power)

 

Purpose of Goals

-          Increase Persistence

-          Direct Attention/Focus

-          Mobilize Effort

-          Allows for alternate strategies

 

Best goals

-          Positive

-          Realistic/Obtainable

-          Reasonable

-          Short Term

-          Challenging

-          Clear

-          Feedback

-          “Learning-Type” Goal

 

EXPECTANCY x VALUE = MOTIVATION

-          If either of these are 0, then motivation is 0

-          expectancy – Can I do it? Will I succeed?

-          Value – Is it worth it?

 

EFFECTIVE REINFORCES

1.       Adult Approval                                                                            Praise

2.        Peer Approval                                                                              Group work / Acceptance

3.        Entertainment                                                                               Television / Movie

4.        Consumables                                                                                Ice Cream / Candy

5.        Independence                                                                               Choose where to go / Free time

6.        Competition                                                                                  You’ll be better than… / Game

7.        Privilege/Responsibility                                                              Leader of the line

 

UNDERMINING EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION

1.        Satiation – get tired of is

2.        Disregard for Quality – Rush through something to get the reward

3.        Dependency on Giver – won’t work on their own

4.        Scarcity Principle – If everyone gets the same thing, it’s not as valuable

5.        Transfer Limitation – learning is temporary

6.        Resentment of Manipulation – they feel that they are manipulated and disliked

   

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

-          motivation can be a trait

-          can be caused by family expectation (competition)

-          can be caused by culture

 

1.        Success Seekers

-          Learning Goals

-          intristic motivation

-          task involved

2.        Failure Avoiders

-          Performance Goals

-          extristic

-          ego-involved

3.        Failure Acceptors (learned helplessness)

-          inattentive, not trying

-          low academic self esteem

-          why?  Repeated failures/Little Success

4.        Success Fear

-          Peer pressure

-          negative experience

 

1968 Study

-          “Self Fulfilling Prophecy” = teacher expectations

-          Researchers told the teachers that certain students (selected at random) with achieve highly.  At the end of the year, these students actually did better

 

Pyalion Effect – students do better (or worse) due to teacher expectations

 

Expectation Sustaining Effect – when a teacher is blind to realistic improvements

 

WAYS A TEACHER FORMS AN OPINION ABOUT STUDENTS

1.        Siblings

2.        Other teacher’s information

3.        Gender/Sex

4.        School activity preferences

5.        Jobs, community standing, family reputation

6.        Appearance (Dress, looks, maturity, hygiene)

7.        Previous classes taken and results

8.        Student Files

9.        Culture, Nationality, ethnic background

 

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

-          America is the “Melting Pot”

-          E Pluribus Unum (out of many – one)

-          American, language

-          many cultures assimilated into one

-          America is a “Quilt” or “Salad Bowl”

-          each groups keeps their own characteristics

-          unity through diversity

-          cultural retention

 

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

-          Conception of time

-          Working individually vs. together

-          Respect and Role of Authority and Age

-          Value of:

-          words – ideas – knowledge

-          vs.

-          people – feelings – relationships

-          Tolerance of other tongues

-          Ultimate goal/purpose of education

-          Conversational interaction customs

-          Personal space and Greeting customs

-          Mobility

-          Value of effort vs. talent

-          Resting patterns